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Amy Smith
UX Design,UI Design, Web Design. I like sharing All thing about design!

In the field of product design, there’s no denying that usability testing is one of the best ways to improve your products, but the user researchers who conduct usability testing are never enough.To enable our colleagues in all departments to carry out research testing in an efficient way, we’ve made some easy-to-understand documents tutorials, including this article on usability testing. Designers always take usability design first. One thing should be noted that the testing methods introduced in this article are simple informal with small sample and an objective of discovering serious problems. If you need a further understanding of testing principles methods, the following books are for your reference:

Before we get started, I would like to inform you that the earlier you make the usability testing, the better. And you could make the testing with only some simple facilities.

What is usability testing?

Actually, usability testing is not complicated to understand. Simply speaking, it means observing people using the product. To be more specific, it can be defined that solving the usability problems through observing representative users and completing typical tasks, which aims to make the product easier to use.

How to plan and conduct a usability testing?

According to the definition above, we are going to figure out the following questions in this part:

1.How to design the testing task?

2.How to find your users?

3.How to conduct the testing?

4.How to find out usability problems by analyzing data collected?

How to design the testingtask?

Designing the testing task is the core of the preliminary work in usability testing. The standard of recruiting the users should be made after you finishing designing the usability testing process as the task involved in this testing is directly related to users’ operation experience. Once we clarify the former, the next step would be clear, too.

Before making a plan for your testing, ask yourself these questions:

“Does my plan actually reflect the real goals of users (not what I personally think users would like to do)?”

After asking yourself this question more than 3 times and finally finding the right answers, you could start to design your testing.

Here are some common methods:

A)Firstly, make a to-do list and describe the tasks involved in the testing with simple short sentences and some usability question examples. This is for those colleagues of this project. Since it’s a quick testing, the tasks should be not so many, but crucial, central and those you considerederror-prone.

B)After choosing the important tasks, you should switch the task to a scene which means the content of what are you going to tell or show to your users. It is necessary to take the users’ goals and motivations into consideration, because your functions of the product are not important for users, what really matters is their targets and the process of achieving targets. At this time, you can ask yourself that question above.

C)Determine the requirements of these tasks, such as, if you need a new account or if it is necessary to prepare the documents and so on.

D)Pre-testing. Pre-testing is mainly to find out some problems of your plan, you can ask your colleagues to help you complete it quickly at their lunch time.

How to findusers?

Before you find users by making use of various resources, you should clarify that what kind of users you need.

What kind of people do youneed?

Previously, in the testing plan stage, when we communicate with the colleagues in product/design apartment,They always use terms like “age of 25–30”, “office workers”, etc. But in fact, we are mostly concerned about the behaviors of the users, so, when we decide the standards of choosing the users, we should be concerned about the experience and behavior of using the product, rather than demographic characteristics. To get more details of this topic, you can read this article about Soire Mesh Contour Bra Baby pink Cosabella Footlocker Cheap Online Free Shipping Exclusive 100% Authentic Manchester Online With Paypal Free Shipping 3I2b7ZBJ

How many users do youneed?

When it comes to how many users do we need in the testing, you have to look at this classic chart of Nielsen, though it is debated that whether five users are enough or not in this field. However, in practice, as long as you can find the appropriate person in the first stage, five users are enough to find some significant usability problems. Of course, here I would like to emphasize again that the purpose of quick testing is to find serious problems rather than all problems.

In addition, we also find that when product and design staffs are observing the first three users, they would always focus on it and make records quickly. However, when it turns to the fifth or more, new information would be less, which result in these researchers get bored or even fall asleep (like the rabbit in this chart). Therefore, testing users within 5 members would make researchers concentrate on the testing and more likely to observe and listen to the ideas of users.

How to findusers?

After identifying the criteria and the number of users, it’s time to consider “How to find your users?”. Since it is a quick testing, so I suggest you try to exhaust all means, no matter you look for colleagues, friends, friends of friends, or use website advertising, etc. As long as you can finish your testing fast and follow the requirements of the testing, you can choose any means you want. By the way, having a usual list of users would be better.

How to conduct usability testing

As it is a quick testing, the role of the host would change from user researcher to the designer or product staff. Therefore, I have to emphasize that when you are doing the testing, do not try to teach users how to use the product as well as promote the your product to the user.

Tips: things being tested can be your product or the prototype of product (especially for software).

When you test the usability of a prototype, it’s important to simulate the usage scenario. If the product is used on a mobile end, it should be test on a mobile end, so you should make sure the prototype tool you used have the capability of sharing across devices. Some fast prototyping tools like Mockplus enable users to view a project on your Pad or phone by scanning the QR code or entering project code, etc. which greatly facilitate the testing. Except for Mockplus, Axure share has similar sharing functions.

What does the hostdo?

What does the recorderdo?

No matter it is a real-time observation (with special experience rooms or usability testing tools), or it needs to look back to observe by videos, you should notice that the key point of your records are not what the user said, but how do they use your product. Remember, what did they do in the testing is more important than what did they say. Well, since this testing is made to find out some serious problems that are always obvious, you are supposed to record these problems without discussing the solutions to them, because these solutions proposed by you or the users are not the best sometimes. You can consider this issue quietly or discuss it with your colleagues later.

How to find out usability problems by analyzing data?

After completing the testing, moderators and observers need to quickly sort out the useful information with their fresh memories by using stickers, a whiteboard or creating a document to record these problems. In short, you should quickly write down their operations and the problems they raised or you found. However, you are not supposed to make any conclusion immediately.

After all the testing has been done and all stickers, lists have been collected, you could find out the most serious problems and fix them quickly. In this session, the key point is to make sure that which questions are most important and can be repaired quickly. Only in this way the testing results are executable, not just a list of archived issues. After reading this article, I believe you would be clearer about how to conduct usability testing.


Translator: Julie

Original website: uedc

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Fig. 6

Molecular distance distributions of paralogs and speciation nodes. The distribution of mean HKY distances from duplication nodes to descendants reveals three distributions shown in different colors in ( a ). Comparing the distribution of HKY distances from speciation nodes to (lines in b ) reveals that distribution #1 (red in a ) is restricted to the branch, distribution #2 (green in a ) is similar to pre-spider and post-tick speciation nodes, and distribution #3 (blue in a ) is older than the -tick speciation event. N = number of speciation nodes in ( b ). Comparing the number of duplication nodes in non- species ( c ) that are either partially or fully retained in reveals that the duplication nodes with HYK distances in the range of the oldest distribution (blue in a ) are retained at a similar rate across all species (right sub-columns in c ), but that those duplication nodes with HKY distances in the range of the middle distribution (green in a ) are only retained in scorpions or more closely related species (left sub-columns in c )

The possibility that a WGD occurred prior to the divergence of spiders and scorpions and after the divergence of spiders from mites is additionally supported by comparison of the distributions of HKY distances of the duplication nodes to speciation nodes, with an almost identical pattern found for the paralog distances and the spider–scorpion distances (Fig. 6b , Additional file 19 : Figure S9, Additional file 20 : Table S11). Shared paralog retention is also high for spiders and scorpions, but not between spiders and ticks or mites, further supporting a shared WGD in the spider and scorpion common ancestor (Fig. Silk Square Scarf SQSilk Thiess Scarf 2 by VIDA VIDA Discount Shop Amazon For Sale Outlet Locations Cheap Online Clearance Limited Edition WzTLf
, Additional file 21 : Table S12). Furthermore, the tandem duplication nodes identified above formed the majority of the duplication nodes in the younger Gaussian distribution (71%), and minorities of the second (24%) and third distributions (9%) (Additional file 22 : Figure S10). This is the opposite of what is seen with the duplication nodes containing dispersed duplications (younger: 29%, second: 62%, and third: 50%). Additionally, a slight majority of the older tandem duplication nodes showed evidence of being shared with other arachnids (57%), but mostly with other species in the same family as P. tepidariorum (44%). This suggests that an ancient WGD was followed by pervasive lineage-specific tandem duplications, especially in spiders.

Analysis of the gene families containing a duplication pair from the middle and oldest Gaussian distributions (Fig. 6a ), excluding tandem duplicates, showed that they are enriched in several GO terms compared to gene families without duplication pairs, including several terms associated with transcription and metabolism (Additional file Womens Beauty Résist Opaque Cd X2 Tights Dim Discount Cheap High-Quality Cheap Sale From China 5YD21X5g9
: Table S13). The same GO terms are also enriched in these gene families compared to the families with tandem duplications, but the difference is not significant. However, the gene families with tandem duplication pairs are depleted in GO terms relating to translation.

It was also recently reported that approximately 36% of annotated microRNAs in P. tepidariorum are present as two or more copies [ 44 ]. Analysis of the synteny of the paralogous P. tepidariorum microRNAs shows that only 8 out of 30 are found on the same scaffold. Furthermore, nearly all of the tandemly duplicated microRNAs in P. tepidariorum are microRNAs largely specific to this spider (e.g., mir-3971 paralogs) or clustered in arthropods (e.g., mir-2 from the mir-71/mir-2 cluster) (Additional file 11 : Table S6) [ 44 ]. These findings suggest that the majority of duplicated microRNAs were not generated by tandem duplication.

Comparative analyses suggest that other key developmental genes are also commonly duplicated in P. tepidariorum. A synteny analysis of these previously reported duplications showed that only the two Pax6 paralogs were located on the same scaffold (Additional file 12 : Table S7), suggesting that they arose through tandem duplication. The paralogs of other duplicated developmental genes examined were found on different scaffolds (Additional file 12 : Table S7), including retinal differentiation ( dachshund and sine oculis ), head patterning ( six3 , orthodenticle , collier ) [ 57 , Navy Paisley Print Pocket Square Eton Deals For Sale hjEEDU2
], Wnt pathway genes ( Wnt7 , Wnt11 , frizzled 4 ) [ 37 , Sleeveless Top Blocks of Color by VIDA VIDA Clearance Store Cheap Price JtIlQ
], and appendage formation genes ( homothorax , extradenticle , Lim1 , spineless , trachealess , and clawless ) (Prpic et al., unpublished data).

Classification of duplicated genes in spiders and scorpions shows that tandem and especially dispersed duplications abound in these genomes. The observation that most of the duplicated genes are found on different scaffolds is suggestive of large-scale duplication, with the caveat that the scaffolds do not represent chromosomes, and therefore the frequency of tandem duplications could be underestimated. Taken together, these results, and the finding that the Hox cluster has also been duplicated, could be indicative of a WGD.

Fig. 5

Genome-scale conservation of synteny among scaffolds reveals signatures of an ancient WGD. a Oxford grid displaying the colinearity detected by SatsumaSynteny among the 39 scaffolds presenting the greatest numbers of hits on one another. On this grid (not drawn to scale), each point represents a pair of identical or nearly identical 4096-bp regions. Alignments of points reveal large segmental duplications suggestive of a whole-genome duplication event along with other rearrangements such as inversions, translocations and tandem duplications. b Circos close-ups of some of the colinearity relationships revealed by the Oxford grid

To determine the timing of duplication relative to species divergence within a broader taxonomic sampling of arachnids than analyzed thus far, we grouped the protein-coding genes of 30 arachnid species into gene families with either P. tepidariorum or C. sculpturatus translated genes used as a seed plus L. polyphemus and S. maritima as outgroups (Additional file 14 : Table S8) [ 61 ]. This method resulted in 2734 unique P. tepidariorum -seeded gene families (Additional file 15 : Figure S7). Note that seeding gene families with C. sculpturatus resulted in fewer families (1777) but similar patterns of gene duplication (not shown); we thus focused on the results of P. tepidariorum -seeded families.

Sampling needle syringe fibroadenoma

A FNAuses a 10 ml or 20 ml syringe and a 23 gauge to 27 gauge needle . The needle passes through the skin and into a palpable lump or area of breast abnormality. The needle tip then passes back and forth within the mass.

Your physician applies negative pressure while pulling the syringe plunger back and rotating the wrist so that the needle is twisting.

EEeeuehhh! Far too much information.
I’m shaking…. these people know that I’m needle phobic too.
The tissue sampling or biopsy itself does not hurt, because of the use of local anesthesia. So, the biopsy shouldn’t be at all painful.

After the breast biopsy, the surgeon places the cytology specimen in a preservative, such as CytoLyte solution. After, medical staff send the sample tothe Pathology laboratory . The aim is to have an adequate sample with enough cells for the Cytopathologist to examine.

cytology laboratory sample

The pathologist spins down the cells and smears them onto a glass slide , fixes and stains themwith a visual histochemical stain. Finally, the pathologist examines the cells under a microscope .

stains microscope

FNA cytology has certain advantages :

advantages Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) results inexpensive

FNA cytology has some disadvantages :

disadvantages in-situ invasive samples false negative inadequate

FNA is also used to diagnose simple breast cyst . The fluid within a simple cyst can be clear, yellow, grey, green, blue, milky, or bloody . However, cytology testing is always necessary for bloody fluid, as this may indicate a lesion other than a simple cyst .

bloody lesion

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of palpable lesions increases the degree of confidence that the needle has been placed accurately .


Mammographic guidance on the stereotactic table increases the accuracy for core biopsy . The patient lies in a prone or upright position for a stereotactic breast biopsy. For a prone stereotactic biopsy , the patient lies face-down on the table with her breast through an opening in the table. Certain conditions are not amenable to stereotactic biopsy, including a small breast, lesions close to the chest wall or nipple and faint calcifications.

American College of Allergy, Asthma Immunology © 2014

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